By Robert Allan Leishear
For a few, using the time period "water hammer" inspires pictures of damaged and bent piping, multi-million buck damages, the lack of water offers to towns, and the deaths of people as a result of water hammer injuries. Water hammer should be outlined as an severe fluid brief, sometimes famous via loud banging, or hammering sounds, occasionally linked to fluid transients, that are because of circulate expense adjustments and resultant strain surges, the place the phrases fluid temporary and water hammer are often used interchangeably. the first objective of this article is to supply working towards engineers with the analytical instruments required to spot water hammer matters and forestall gear harm, body of workers damage, and fatalities. to take action, the rules of pipe method layout with recognize to fluid mechanics, valves, and pump operations are by means of easy structural piping layout ideas, water hammer conception, pipe approach dynamics, and failure research. this article is meant for practising engineers within the strength and approach piping components who're all in favour of the layout, functionality, and defense of piping gear and elements; particularly the id, possibility evaluate, and prevention of water hammers in water, liquid, and steam piping structures. proper industries comprise strength businesses and utilities, strain expertise, valve and pipe brands, and petro/chemical processing amenities. total, the textual content integrates a number of structural and fluids engineering disciplines to demonstrate the foundations of troubleshooting pipe structures for fluid circulation difficulties and pipe mess ups
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Additional info for Fluid mechanics, water hammer, dynamic stresses, and piping design
From these equations, laminar flow is defined on the Moody diagram, where f = 64/Re. Note that the Fanning friction factor is used in some references, and the Darcy friction factor is used in others. Consequently, on some versions of the Moody diagram, laminar flow is defined as fn = 16/Re. 37) Turbulent flow is also considered on the Moody diagram. An assumption was made that one equation could be applied to determine the head loss for any friction factor, regardless of whether the flow was laminar or turbulent.
Also note that the friction factor significantly increases as the pipe diameter is reduced, which effectively increases the relative roughness. 1. 10. Pipe material properties are discussed in Chapter 3. Most of the standards defining these dimensions also provide SI tables. Crane  also provides a list of pipe dimensions, along with moments of inertia and pipe weights. Schedule NPS OD, in. 00 5S 10S 10 Inside diameter, D, in. 5 Aluminum pipe (ASTM B429/B429M-06 , reprinted with permission of ASTM International, 100 Bar Harbor Drive, West Conshohocken, Pa, 19428.
Hand wheels (manual actuators) are shown in the figures, but automatic actuators are also available for valves (pneumatic, electromechanical, hydraulic, or electrohydraulic). 10-2000 .
Fluid mechanics, water hammer, dynamic stresses, and piping design by Robert Allan Leishear