By F. Holland, R. Bragg
This significant re-creation of a favored undergraduate textual content covers themes of curiosity to chemical engineers taking classes on fluid stream. those issues contain non-Newtonian circulation, gas-liquid two-phase move, pumping and combining. It expands at the factors of rules given within the first version and is extra self-contained. robust positive aspects of the 1st version have been the large derivation of equations and labored examples to demonstrate calculation systems. those were retained. a brand new prolonged introductory bankruptcy has been supplied to provide the scholar an intensive foundation to appreciate the equipment lined in next chapters.
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Extra info for Fluid Flow for Chemical and Process Engineers
For the element shown, the fluid nearer the wall retards the element while that closer to the centre drags the element in the direction of flow. A steady state is achieved when the difference in the shear forces acting on the element balances the force due to the pressure difference across the element. 14 shows a section on the diameter through the pipe. 7 Determine the relationship between the shear stress at the wall and the pressure gradient for steady, fully developed, incompressible flow in a horizontal pipe.
53 can be written for the positive sign convention. In the positive sign convention, the shear stress acting on the outer surface of the element is measured in the positive x-direction and that on the inner surface is measured in the negative x-direction. 17. Pl + 2 ~ r + 8r)L. P2 - 2,rrL. 51. It will be noted that the only difference is the sign of each term containing the shear stress r,~. 59 shows that r~ is negative, which indicates that the shear stress components act physically in the opposite directions to those employed in the sign convention.
Independent of the sign convention used, the stress components can be classified into two types: those that act tangentially to the face of the element and those that act normal to the face. Tangential components such as ~',~, ~-y,,, ~-y~tend to cause shearing and are called shear stress components (or simply shear stresses). In contrast, the stress components ~'xx, ~ , ~'~ act normal to the face of the element and are therefore called normal stress components (or normal stresses). Thus there are three independent shear stress components and three independent normal stress components.
Fluid Flow for Chemical and Process Engineers by F. Holland, R. Bragg