By Sighard F. Hoerner
It's basically the aeronautical engineer who's attracted to aerodynamic drag difficulties, in order that he can expect and probably increase the functionality of airplanes. the rules of aerodynamic drag, many unique facts, and a few precise sections during this publication may still, notwithstanding, locate readers in different different fields of engineering to boot - within the layout of cars, in shipbuilding, within the building of chimneys (wind loads), within the layout of high-speed railroad trains, in machines utilizing aerodynamic or hydrodynamic forces, and at last within the layout of air flow platforms.
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Additional info for Fluid Dynamic Drag: Practical Information on Aerodynamic Drag and Hydrodynamic Resistance
Control volume finite element methods possess a local mass conservation property on each control volume, while discontinuous methods are closely related to the finite volume methods that have been utilized in reservoir simulation. Two nonstandard methods, the mixed and characteristic finite element methods, are also discussed. , pressure) simultaneously and give a high-order approximation for both variables. The characteristic finite element methods are suitable for advection-dominated (or convection-dominated) problems.
Flows of other types involve thermal methods, particularly steam drive and soak, and chemical flooding, such as alkaline, surfactant, polymer, and foam (ASP+foam) flooding. All flows of these types in petroleum reservoir applications are considered in this book. 2 Numerical Methods In general, the equations governing a mathematical model of a reservoir cannot be solved by analytical methods. Instead, a numerical model can be produced in a form that is amenable to solution by digital computers. Since the 1950s, when digital computers became widely available, numerical models have been used to predict, understand, and optimize complex physical fluid flow processes in petroleum reservoirs.
Previous evaluation of this technology has indicated that it is economical and efficient in contaminant cleanup. For such an application, coupled nonlinear equations for an air-water system must be solved. While ground water modeling has become increasingly important, it is beyond the scope of this book to study it. However, we emphasize that technologies and techniques similar to those used in petroleum reservoirs apply also to ground water flow (Chen and Ewing, 1997A; Helmig, 1997). Chapter 1.
Fluid Dynamic Drag: Practical Information on Aerodynamic Drag and Hydrodynamic Resistance by Sighard F. Hoerner