By John Orcutt
Modern Earth approach tracking represents a basic switch within the means scientists research the Earth System. In Oceanography, for the earlier centuries, ships have supplied the structures for observing. Expeditions at the continents and Earth’s poles are land-based analogues. primary figuring out of present structures, weather, traditional dangers, and ecosystems has been enormously complicated. whereas those techniques were remarkably profitable, the necessity to determine measurements over the years can in basic terms be made utilizing Earth observations and observatories with exacting criteria and non-stop data. the nineteen peer-reviewed contributions during this quantity offer early insights into this emerging view of Earth in either area and time during which switch is a serious part of our growing understanding.
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Extra info for Earth System Monitoring: Selected Entries from the Encyclopedia of Sustainability Science and Technology
50 UT) where they are hydrated by moisture and thus grow in size producing greater backscatter. It is interesting to note that there are no clouds detected in the profile, yet nowhere in the atmosphere is there pure molecular scattering. This has implications for climate change as aerosols can either reflect or absorb incident energy, affecting the energy balance of the global atmosphere. The aerosol wavelength dependence (color ratio) is shown in Fig. 7. The color ratio is the ratio of 1,064 to 591-nm backscattering and gives an indication of relative aerosol size with larger ratios indicating larger aerosols.
1029/2009JC005312 2 Airborne and Space-borne Remote Sensing of Cryosphere 31 38. Williams R Jr, Hall D (1993) Glaciers. In: Gurney R, Foster J, Parkinson C (eds) Atlas of satellite observations related to global change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 401–422 39. Swithinbank C (1973) Higher resolution satellite pictures. Polar Rec 16(104):739–751 40. Swithinbank C, Lucchitta BK (1986) Multispectral digital image mapping of Antarctic ice features. Ann Glaciol 8:159–163 41. S. Geological Survey (2010) Satellite image atlas of glaciers of the world.
The off-line is chosen near the online wavelength but in a region where there is no (little) absorption by the gas species of interest. Generally, the on- and off-line pulses are alternating at a repetition rate as high as possible to allow noise reduction by averaging without sacrificing horizontal resolution. The on- and off-line powers at each range cell R2–R1 are recorded at the receiver computer for postprocessing into curtain profiles of the particular gas species. Several examples will now be described that illustrate the power of the DIAL technique to profile the atmosphere for different species from both aircraft and space platforms.
Earth System Monitoring: Selected Entries from the Encyclopedia of Sustainability Science and Technology by John Orcutt