By National Research Council, Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences, Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems, Committee on District Heating and Cooling
Used traditionally in city components yet now usually in associations, district heating and cooling structures - effective centralized strength platforms which may use strength resources except petroleum - have received renewed curiosity. This quantity is a nontechnical exam of the heritage and present volume of district heating and cooling platforms within the usa, their charges and advantages, technical standards, marketplace call for for them, and ecu event with such structures, with significant specialize in the issues of financing, legislation, and taxation. Appendixes supply case stories of towns and cities at the moment utilizing district heating and cooling structures.
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Extra info for District Heating and Cooling in the United States: Prospects and Issues
Page 10 This report will concentrate on urban district heating and cooling systems. Nevertheless, it will also discuss the institutional systems, particularly as they relate to urban systems. In the United States, the former outnumber the latter, are growing in number, and represent a base for expanding urban systems in the future. The technology for urban systems is also essentially the same as that for institutional ones. Table 1-1 covers the relative advantages and disadvantages of steam and hot water systems.
The table covers aspects of hot water systems in the low-temperature (250°F; 120°C), medium-temperature (350°F; 175°C), and high-temperature (450°F; 230°C) ranges, with their respective required pressurizations. Not all elements of the table apply to each temperature or pressure level. Plastic pipes, for example, are not suitable for high-temperature use. How District Heating and Cooling Systems Work All district heating or cooling systems have four basic components: the fuel or resource, thermal production, transmission and distribution systems, and an end user or customer (RDA, 1981).
Installation is difficultpitched piping, steam traps, pipe expansion, manholes. Maintenance costs are higher than for hot water systems. (Table continued on next page) Page 12 (Table continued from previous page) TABLE 1-1 Comparison of Steam District Heating and Hot Water District Heating (continued) System Advantages Disadvantages Metering energy use is difficult. Very susceptible to missizing or loss of large customer. Difficult to operate under conditions of varying loads. Hot water district heating Piping range of 15 miles (25 km), possibly up to 70 miles (110 km).
District Heating and Cooling in the United States: Prospects and Issues by National Research Council, Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences, Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems, Committee on District Heating and Cooling