By Professor Lars Bergström, Dr Ariel Goobar (auth.)

ISBN-10: 3540329242

ISBN-13: 9783540329244

ISBN-10: 3540377190

ISBN-13: 9783540377191

Beginning with a few simple evidence concerning the observable universe the authors think about in successive chapters the entire variety of issues that make up a level path in cosmology and particle astrophysics. the exceptional function of this ebook is that it truly is self-contained, in that no specialized wisdom is needed at the a part of the reader, except uncomplicated undergraduate arithmetic and physics.

This paperback variation will back objective scholars of physics, astrophysics and cosmology on the complicated undergraduate point or early graduate point. one of many book’s greatest powerful issues is that the authors quickly contain scholars within the most enjoyable of ultra-modern advancements within the box in an easy and self-contained demeanour, relegating the extra technical points to appendices. The labored examples during the ebook, and summaries on the finish of every bankruptcy, that have been multiplied within the moment version, were rather well obtained by way of students.

This ebook deals complicated undergraduate point and starting graduate point scholars a hugely readable, but accomplished evaluation of particle astrophysics. Competing books conceal this subject at too complex a degree for this readership.

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**Additional info for Cosmology and Particle Astrophysics**

**Sample text**

23) ⎝ 0 0 −1 0 ⎠ 0 0 0 −1 0 2 where µ and ν run from 0 to 3. This metric is called the Minkowski metric, and space-time with this metric is called Minkowski space. The reader should be warned that there is unfortunately no universal deﬁnition of the Minkowski metric. 23) change sign. Of course, no physical result will depend on this convention, however, some intermediate results may look diﬀerent. If we deﬁne xµ ≡ ηµν xν (we see that for the Minkowski metric this just amounts to changing the sign of the three space-components), then we can conveniently write ds2 = dxµ dxµ = dxµ dxµ .

The points inside the cone for t > 0 (the future light-cone) can be reached by an observer travelling with a velocity smaller than that of light. Likewise, the points inside the past light-cone (t < 0) are causally connected to P1 . Points inside the light-cone have ∆s2 > 0, and are said to be causally connected to the observer. This is because c∆t > ∆r so that the event P2 can be reached from P1 by signals travelling slower than with the velocity of light. If ∆s2 < 0 (on the outside of the lightcone) P1 and P2 cannot be connected by any means – the events are causally disconnected.

2 The Equivalence Principle Einstein used a number of thought experiments to formulate and illustrate the basic principles of general relativity. Suppose ﬁrst that we are on board a window-less rocket far from the solar system and other sources of gravitation. Assume that it accelerates with a constant acceleration which is numerically exactly equal to the gravitational acceleration g at the Earth’s surface. Can we then, by performing experiments on board this spacecraft, determine if the rocket is moving or just standing still on the surface of the Earth?

### Cosmology and Particle Astrophysics by Professor Lars Bergström, Dr Ariel Goobar (auth.)

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