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Weinstein's "Schlieren for Aircraft in Flight" is an important new tool for the flight-testing of high-speed airplanes. It was used already for sonic boom research and, more recently, he has adapted a similar approach to rocket-sled testing as well  (see Sect. 1). At the beginning of the 21st Century, Leonard Weinstein 's contributions demonstrate that the optics of inhomogeneous media still thrives. a b Fig. 24. a Leonard M. Weinstein. 1. The verticalscaleof this image is about 28 m. 2 Basic Concepts The basic principle of the schlieren technique is the combination of the optical projection of an object withan indication of its lightdeflection.
Schlieren and shadowgraphy were again crucial in seeing and understanding the complex flows that developed on aircraft wings as the mystical "sound barrier" was approached. b Fig. 20. a Douglas Holder (photo courtesy Ramsey and Muspratt Collection, Central Library, Cambridge), b R. J. North (photo courtesy Mrs. Nella North). Beyondjust using these optics, however, R. 1. "Jack" North (1921-1998) of the NPL Aerodynamics Division contributed new substance to the techniques. He introduced the graded filter  and a simple multicolored filter  as alternatives to the standard knife-edge cutoff.
Transparent schlieren objects are not imaged at all until a knifeedge is added at the focus of the second lens. In practice, this knife-edge is usually just an ordinary razor blade. As the knife-edge advances toward the focal point, nothing happens until it rather suddenly blocks the image of the light source, causing the screen to go dark. ) Thus one has the choice of a bright or a dark screen: brightfield or darkfield in the language of microscopy. Choosing the former, let the knife-edge be positioned just prior to blocking the image of the source point.
Convective cells by Pomeau