By Klaus Krippendorff
The second one version of content material research: An creation to Its method is a definitive sourcebook of the background and center ideas of content material research in addition to a vital source for current and destiny experiences. The booklet introduces readers to methods of studying significant subject akin to texts, photos, voices – that's, facts whose actual manifestations are secondary to the meanings specific inhabitants of individuals brings to them. equipped into 3 elements, the ebook examines the conceptual and methodological elements of content material research and likewise lines a number of paths via content material research protocols. the writer has thoroughly revised and up-to-date the second one version, integrating new info on computer-aided textual content research. The publication additionally incorporates a useful consultant that includes reviews in instructing and the way to suggest educational and advertisement researchers. additionally, Krippendorff clarifies the epistemology and good judgment of content material research in addition to the equipment for reaching its goals. meant as a textbook for complex undergraduate and graduate scholars around the social sciences, content material research, moment version can also be a helpful source for practitioners in numerous disciplines.
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Extra info for Content Analysis: An Introduction to Its Methodology
Texts have no objective-that is, no reader-independent-qualities. Seeing something as a text entails an invitation, if not a commitment, to read it. Regarding something as a message implies that someone is trying to make sense of it. Accepting particular markers as data entails taking them as an unquestion able ground for subsequent conceptualizations. Thus texts, messages, and data arise in the process of someone engaging with them conceptually. A text does not exist without a reader, a message does not exist without an interpreter, and data do not exist without an observer.
Every content analysis requires a context within which the available texts are examined. The analyst must, in effect, construct a world in which the texts make sense and can answer the analyst's research questions. A context renders percep tual data into readable texts and serves as the conceptual justification for reasonable interpretations, including for the results of content analysis. Often, analysts presuppose particular contexts based on their own disciplinary commit ments, as in the above example about a speech on economics.
1 , is simple and general, employing only a few conceptual components: • A body of text, the data that a content analyst has available to begin an analytical effort 29 30 .. CO N C E PTU A L I ZI N G CO N T E N T ANALYS I S • A research question that the analyst seeks to answer by examining the body of text • A context of the analyst's choice within which to make sense of the body of text • • • An analytical construct that operationalizes what the analyst knows about the context Inferences that are intended to answer the research question, which constitute the basic accomplishment of the content analysis Validating evidence, which is the ultimate analysis The Many Worlds of Others j ustification of the content Context as Conceived by Content Anal y sts Inferences - - - - - - - - - - ....
Content Analysis: An Introduction to Its Methodology by Klaus Krippendorff