By Karp R.

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Additional info for Combinatorics, Complexity and Randomness (Turing Award lecture)

Example text

However, they agree in their Euclidean coordinates and therefore the two points are said to be equal. For independent item types we also have the identity predicate (realized by function bool identical(const T &, const T &)). , pointers). Thus identical( p, q) evaluates to false. We summarize in: LEDA Rule 2 (a) For independent item types the identity predicate is equality between values. The equality predicate is defined individually for each item type. It is usually equality between attributes.

We spent the first six months on specifications and on selecting our implementation language. Our test cases were priority queues, dictionaries, partitions, and algorithms for shortest paths and minimum spanning trees. We came up with the item concept as an abstraction of the notion “pointer into a data structure”. It worked successfully for the three data types mentioned above and we are now using it for most data types in LEDA. 1 A comparison of the list data type in LEDA and in the implementation of the Standard Template Library [MS96] that comes with the GNU C·· compiler.

A description typically defines a family of algorithms all with the same asymptotic worst case running time and leaves decisions that do not affect worst case running time to the implementor. The decisions may, however, dramatically affect the running time on inputs that are not worst case. 10 give particularly striking examples. We found it useful to concentrate on the best and average case after getting the worst case “right”. LEDA has its own memory manager. It provides efficient implementations of the new and delete operators.