By J R Backhurst, J H Harker, J.F. Richardson
This quantity within the Coulson and Richardson sequence in chemical engineering comprises complete labored options to the issues posed in quantity 1. when the most quantity comprises illustrative labored examples through the textual content, this ebook includes solutions to the tougher questions posed on the finish of every bankruptcy of the most text.These questions are of either a typical and non-standard nature, and so will end up to be of curiosity to either educational employees educating classes during this region and to the willing scholar. Chemical engineers in who're searching for a regular approach to a real-life challenge also will locate the e-book of substantial interest.* a useful resource of data for the coed learning the fabric contained in Chemical Engineering quantity 1* A worthy approach to studying - solutions are defined in complete
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Additional info for Chemical Engineering: Solutions Volume 1
Solution Making a force balance over an element distance r from the axis of a pipe whose radius is a, then: P r 2 D du/dr 2 rl where u is the velocity at distance r and l is the length of the pipe. Hence: and: du D P/2 l r dr P/4 l r 2 C constant uD When r D a, u D 0, the constant D P/4 l a2 and hence u D P/4 l a2 r 2 . At a distance r from the axis, the time taken for the fluid to flow through a length l is given by 4 l2 / P a2 r 2 . The volumetric rate of flow from r D 0 to r D r is: r P/4 l a2 D r 2 2 rdr 0 D P /8 l 2a2 r 2 Volumetric flowrate over the whole pipe D and the mean velocity D r4 P a4 /8 l Pa2 /8 l.
24 of Volume 1. This type of fluid remains rigid when the shear stress is less than the yield stress RY and flows like a Newtonian fluid when the shear stress exceeds RY . Examples of Bingham plastics are many fine suspensions and pastes including sewage sludge and toothpaste. The velocity profile in laminar flow is shown in Fig. 3c. Pipe wall Rw Ry r Rc y ro R=o Plug flow region Velocity distribution Figure 3c. A force balance over the pipe assuming no slip at the walls gives: P r 2 D Rw 2 rL, and P/L D 2Rw /r where Rw D shear stress at the wall.
23 and Fig. 8 may be used to calculate the new flow. 02 ð 104 From Fig. 17 A Bingham plastic material is flowing under streamline conditions in a pipe of circular cross-section. What are the conditions for one half of the total flow to be within the central core across which the velocity profile is flat? The shear stress acting within the fluid, Ry , varies with velocity gradient dux /dy according to the relation: Ry Rc D k dux /dy where Rc and k are constants for the material. 32 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING VOLUME 1 SOLUTIONS Solution The shearing characteristics of non-Newtonian fluids are shown in Fig.
Chemical Engineering: Solutions Volume 1 by J R Backhurst, J H Harker, J.F. Richardson