By Steven M. Nadler
Three normal bills of causation stand out in early smooth philosophy: Cartesian interactionism, occasionalism, and Leibniz's preestablished concord. The individuals to this quantity learn those theories of their philosophical and old context. They handle them either as a way for answering particular questions concerning causal family and of their relation to each other, specifically, evaluating occasionalism and the preestablished concord as responses to Descartes's metaphysics and physics and the Cartesian account of causation. Philosophers mentioned comprise Descartes, Gassendi, Malebranche, Arnauld, Leibniz, Bayle, l. a. Forge, and different, much less recognized figures.
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Extra info for Causation in Early Modern Philosophy: Cartesianism, Occasionalism, and Preestablished Harmony
Some we have mentioned already, while others will be apparent to most readers. The similarities must not be exaggerated. Our main point at the moment is that the similarities that exist are not inconsequential, and that they take on added significance when one compares the possible roles of Spinoza and Malebranche in Leibniz's thinking about causation and parallelism at this point in the latter's development. -115tive answers about the date of Leibniz's first formulation of the preestablished harmony.
And finally in our soul as the cause of the motion of body, although we cannot understand the manner of the causing" (A vi. 1, 286-87). ) Ibid. -101and preestablished harmony, we turn now to an evaluation of their details. The order of presentation is altered, so as to work through the topics in something like the temporal order in which they become relevant in Leibniz's philosophical development. We begin, then, with Kabitz's view of Leibniz as a very young man, in the year 1667. Without attempting a full documentation, which would in any case take us beyond the bounds of the present project, let me propose that Kabitz, if he is really serious about finding not only a possible Cartesian influence but also a full-blown interactionist dualism in the "New Method," is almost certainly mistaken.
Leibniz says, I judge that it is not so much that our mind acts on things as that God [acts on things] according to his will. 58 We saw this earlier in Belaval's hands, as evidence that Leibniz rejected the mind's action on body. But that use takes into account only half of what this passage has to offer. If we ask in response to the first half of Leibniz's statement, why then does our arm go up when we will to raise it, ____________________ 58 A ii. I, 487. I have consulted with a specialist on Latin from the Renaissance onward in connection with the translation of this passage.
Causation in Early Modern Philosophy: Cartesianism, Occasionalism, and Preestablished Harmony by Steven M. Nadler