By S. Amsterdamski
Polish philosophy of technology has been the beneficiary of 3 robust artistic streams of medical and philosophical suggestion. First and fore so much used to be the Lwow-Warsaw university of Polish analytical philosophy based by means of Twardowski and endured of their a number of methods via Les niewski, Lukasiewicz, and Tarski, the good mathematical and logical philosophers, through Kotarbinski, the most extraordinary instructor, public determine, and culturally influential thinker of the inter-war and post-war interval, and through Ajdukiewicz, the linguistic thinker who used to be intellectually sympathetic with the anti-irrationalist (as he might say), logistic and meta-theoretical inquiries of the Vienna Circle. moment was once self sustaining and energetic Polish Marxism, with its superb improvement of social learn lower than Krzywicki, a social anthropologist and more youthful modern of Engels, after which after the conflict the economist Lange, the philosophers Schaff, Kolakowski, Baczko, and so on. eventually there was quite a lot of philosophical, medical and humanistic student send which lends its numerous traits to the certainty of either the good judgment of technological know-how and the ancient state of affairs of the sciences: we point out in simple terms that groovy and humane physicist Infeld, the phenomenologist with deep epistemological curiosity Ingarden, the historian of clinical principles Zawirski, the historian of philosophy and aesthetics Tatarkiewicz, and the mathematical logicians resembling Mostowski and Szaniawski.
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Additional info for Between Experience and Metaphysics: Philosophical Problems of the Evolution of Science
For both of them it is true that "there is much latitude of choice as to what statements to reevaluate". , when there is no other possibility to reestablish the equilibrium of the whole field which has been disturbed by the last conflict with experimental results. This is why they change very seldom, why they are the most stable components of the system. It is why it may seem that the system as a whole evolves and works permanently on the grounds of the same rules, and that it is possible to provide a definition of science or to solve the problem of demarcation by specifying the methodological rules which are always to be satisfied by any scientific statement.
2o One problem, however, is clear. On the grounds of a descriptive methodology of science, no criterion of demarcation can be formulated. ', this methodology can tell us that science is what the scientists are doing and that scientists are men who are considered as scientists in their epoch. In other words, when we want to define science on the grounds of a descriptive methodology, we must rather refer to some historically determined concept of science than to supra-historical criteria, which are supposed to delimit it from other products or domains of human intellectual activity.
Any vagueness [about the metaphysical background of Newton's conception of space and time] is dismissed by a careful reading of Voltaire's book. It could have performed this role even before Gregory's notebook was discovered, if only it had been given enough attention. Newton's ideas have constituted the foundation of mechanics for more than two hundred years. That Newton consciously linked them with metaphysics is not only interesting, but also important for any consideration of the point of departure of the theory of relativity.
Between Experience and Metaphysics: Philosophical Problems of the Evolution of Science by S. Amsterdamski