By William Minter
Of all of the many violent chapters in fresh Southern African heritage, the conflicts in Angola and Mozambique due to the fact independence in 1975 were the main protracted, complicated and lethal for hundreds of thousands of civilians. William Minter argues that they signify a brand new form of non-conventional conflict attribute of the 'contra' interval - neither vintage guerrilla conflict nor common exterior aggression, yet comprising parts of civil conflict ruled by way of neighborhood and worldwide exterior powers.He examines the Unita and Renamo social constructions, exterior interventions, styles of army recruitment, conditioning, logistics and method, and the error made through the Angolan and Mozambican states.
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The Washington Redskins franchise is still essentially the most invaluable in expert activities, partially due to its simply recognizable, well known, and ecocnomic brand.
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Additional info for Apartheid's Contras: An Inquiry into the Roots of War in Angola and Mozambique
13 38 | USES Although Marshall and Griffith were arguably the two of the more successful entrepreneurs to capitalize on Indianness in the twentieth century, their uses and understandings of American Indians were very much in keeping with the time. The team took its moniker and established its traditions in an era in which many professional and collegiate teams did the same, as the Western reached its zenith and countless Americans were socialized through youth groups and popular stories to embrace the vision of Native Americans that anchored the team.
He dates the initial usage to 1769 in a private conversation recorded in the French plural form as peaux rouges. He identifies the first public usages four decades later in diplomatic speeches delivered to mixed audiences of Native Americans and Euro-Americans. ” Translators adopted the term as a convention and journalists soon followed suit. 6 Thus, according to Goddard, r*dskin emerged in native languages in a specific region at a specific time to address a changing political landscape; it made reference to Native Americans distinguishing themselves from Europeans and Euro-Americans as members of distinct cultural groups affiliated with unique political entities.
Baxter Homes (Cherokee) presents a detailed rendering. The story in my family goes that the term dates back to the institutionalized genocide of Native Americans, most notably when the Massachusetts colonial government placed a bounty on their heads. The grisly particulars of that genocide are listed in a 1755 document called the Phips Proclamation . . ” They paid well — 50 pounds for adult male scalps; 25 for adult female scalps; and 20 for scalps of boys and girls under age 12. ”15 Although the particulars vary from speaker to speaker, many American Indians know the key elements of this narrative: indigenous people were targeted, hunted, and killed; their bodies were prized and commodified; the process fragmented them, reducing them to a single fetish — the scalp — and these acts were part of larger genocidal projects.
Apartheid's Contras: An Inquiry into the Roots of War in Angola and Mozambique by William Minter